Ryan Frantz
Cookbook Naming Is Difficult

NOTE: This post is adapted from one I wrote on an internal company blog.

A Ghost in the Machine

A well-worn adage in computer science is that naming things is one of the most difficult problems to solve. Very recently, this became all too evident as I learned from debugging an odd problem that cropped up during a Chef Policyfile update.

The nrpe Cookbook

Once upon a time, we maintained an internal cookbook named nrpe that was responsible for installing and configuring the Nagios/Icinga NRPE client. There is also an upstream (public Chef Supermarket) nrpe cookbook. This wasn’t an issue for us as we could define a preferred source for our cookbook in a given Policyfile.rb, like so:

default_source :supermarket, 'https://supermarket.example.com' do |src|
  src.preferred_for 'nrpe'

During the policy compilation phase of a chef update run, the nrpe cookbook would get sourced internally and all was well.

Fast forward to today where we have deprecated the internal nrpe cookbook in favor of an external cookbook named blp-nrpe (we contribute to the open source community as much as possible). The functionality available in the internal nrpe cookbook had been ported. Further, we now have a simple internal cookbook named nrpe-client that depends on blp-nrpe and whose purpose is much more clear than the previous nrpe cookbook.

Some months ago, a number of engineers got on the good foot and removed all references in their cookbooks to the original internal nrpe cookbook. We allowed some time for that to settle in and give folks time to update their policies to pick up the newer versions of cookbooks that no longer depended on the internal nrpe cookbook.

Spooky Action at a Distance

One day, a coworker was updating a policy file, adding the newer nrpe-client cookbook and removing the nrpe reference. chef update complained with:

Error: Failed to generate Policyfile.lock
Reason: (ChefDK::CookbookSourceConflict) Source supermarket(https://supermarket.chef.io) and supermarket(https://supermarket.example.com) contain conflicting cookbooks:
- nrpe

You can set a preferred source to resolve this issue with code like:

default_source :supermarket, "https://supermarket.chef.io" do |s|
  s.preferred_for "nrpe"

No biggie. We decided to double-check for any version constraints that might reference an older cookbook that had once depended on nrpe. We found none. After some more digging, we chose to oblige chef update and added the source preference, to see what a clean run would produce. We reviewed the cookbooks that, in previous versions, had referenced nrpe; all the imported cookbooks were for versions where there was no reference or dependency on the nrpe cookbook!

This was odd. We checked the solution_dependencies and dependencies keys in the policy file lock (Policyfile.lock.json) to find out which cookbook(s) may have required it. We found none!

A Zebra Can’t Change Its Spots

So, if we no longer have any references to the old nrpe cookbook defined, why did chef update insist that we define a preferred source for it? It turns out that if you have ever referenced a cookbook as a dependency in another cookbook, it may come back to haunt you, even if you no longer use the depending cookbook!

The reason for this is that as chef update attempts to resolve cookbooks, their preferred sources, and the resulting dependency graph (i.e. this cookbook depends on that cookbook which in turn depends on the other cookbook, ad infinitum), before it ever considers version constraints, it retrieves all versions of a given cookbook and walks their dependencies to build up an initial list of cookbooks it may need to consider for inclusion in a policy.

Because of this, chef update builds a list that includes newer cookbooks that do not include the nrpe dependency as well as previous versions of those same cookbooks that had previously depended on nrpe! [1] chef update then iterates over that list, checking if each cookbook has a preferred source. If it does not, it tests whether there may be a conflict present; that is, if the cookbook might be found in multiple sources. [2] If it finds a conflict, chef update fails with the above error.

This means that even if we no longer require the nrpe cookbook in newer versions of our cookbooks, we MUST specify a preferred source for it to satisfy the policy file compiler as it builds its dependency graph.


While a long-term fix would be look into adding logic to check version constraints at the same time a dependency graph is built, the simplest solution at the moment is containment. Luckily, both our internal and the upstream nrpe cookbooks are largely vestigial (the latter hasn’t been updated since 2014, as of this writing). We can instruct chef update to use our internal Supermarket as the preferred source for the nrpe cookbook without issue because none of our run lists resolve to actually include that cookbook. It’s effectively a no-op.

However, future engineers may encounter this issue and it’s important they have the necessary context to address this. While this article should be useful, I’ll be updating any Policyfile.rb I come across with the following story:

default_source :community
default_source :supermarket, 'https://supermarket.example.com' do |s|
  s.preferred_for 'nrpe-client',
                  'nrpe' # [1]
# [1]
# While we no longer require the 'nrpe' cookbook in newer cookbook versions,
# because the policyfile compiler pulls all cookbook versions from Supermarket to
# develop a dependency graph per cookbook [a], it means it will pick up versions
# of a cookbook where 'nrpe' may once have been required. The poliycfile compiler
# then checks if a cookbook has a preferred source to pull it from. If it does
# not, and the policyfile compiler sees that the dependent cookbook may be
# found in multiple sources (as is the case for 'nrpe'), the compiler will fail
# and notify the operator. So even though we no longer use the 'nrpe' cookbook
# as a dependency, because its name conflicts with an upstream cookbook in the
# community Supermarket, we HAVE to specify a preferred source here to avoid
# errors [b]. Hopefully this does not cause unexpected issues in the future. At a
# minimum, it looks like the upstream 'nrpe' cookbook [c] is stale/unmaintained
# just like our internal version ;)
# [a] https://github.com/chef/chef-dk/blob/aa5f02/lib/chef-dk/policyfile_compiler.rb#L422-L435
# [b]
#  Error: Failed to generate Policyfile.lock
#  Reason: (ChefDK::CookbookSourceConflict)
#  Source supermarket(https://supermarket.chef.io) and
#  supermarket(https://supermarket.example.com) contain conflicting cookbooks:
#  - nrpe
#  You can set a preferred source to resolve this issue with code like:
#  default_source :supermarket, "https://supermarket.chef.io" do |s|
#    s.preferred_for "nrpe"
#  end
# [c] supermarket.chef.io/cookbooks/nrpe


[1] See the all_possible_dep_names method for context on how chef update resolves cookbook dependencies.

[2] See the remote_artifacts_graph method.